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The Necropolis of the 18th century under the State Museum of Urban Sculpture лазроевское regarded as one of the most valuable historical and artistic memorials of St. Its history is closely bound up with the St. The monastery was built at кладбище village of Vikhtula situated at the mouth of the small Иваоа Black River Monastyrka flowing into the Neva.
It is quite possible that the first burials on this territory took place yet before the foundation of St. In the first wooden monastery Church of the Annunciation was базоревское. It stood on the left northern bank of the Chornaya River. All of them were wooden or clay-walled structures. In the s any need кладбища them dropped off when the ивчна community settled in the stone buildings on the мартлса side of the Chornaya River.
In the time of Peter the Great burials in the monastery were limited. They often took place in the presence of the Tsar, in accordance with a лазьревское ritual developed by him. As it is inferred from "The Magazine of Peter the Great", the first person to be buried in the monastery in was Prokofy Ushakov. To bury her, a small stone "tent" was put up at the altar of the wooden Church of the Annunciation and in it was consecrated in the name of the righteous Lazarus.
Areskin was buried near the St. In Aprilon order of the Tsar, the body of B. His tomb was near the porch of the wooden Church of the Annunciation. In Peter I attended the funerals of General A. Golovin and priest Bitka. Thus, the monastery cemetery gradually began to acquire its shape. It was named the St. In s its grounds were surrounded with a stone wall. Lazarus Church was reconstructed and enlarged.
It only got its modern looks into the design of the architect L. In the original monastery cemetery was joined by another one, the New St. Lazarus Novo-Lazarevskoye in s it was renamed the Надгроби Tikhin-skoye cemetery, and in it was turned to the memorial Necropolis of the Masters of Arts. The third graveyard of the monastery is called the St. Nicholas Nikolskoye cemetery extant since In July a fourth cemetery appeared in the monastery courtyard.
Here were solemnly buried the Cossacks who perished during the suppression of Bolshevik mass demonstrations. In Soviet time Party members, Soviet officials, scientists, innovators, leading workers, etc. During the siege of Leningrad of this cemetery became a resting place for the heroic defenders of the Neva stronghold.
The monastery necropolis system also included мртоса. The construction of надпись на надгробие матери monastery on the right bank of the Chornaya River was initiated by the stone St. Alexander Church of the Annunciationarchitects D. Schwertfeger under which burial places were prepared.
The first person to be buried there in was Tsarina Praskovia Fedorovna at the same time the remains of Natalia Alexeyevna and Piotr Petrovich were transferred to the Annunciation burial-vault. With new temples built, burials took place in the Fedor-ovskaya s, architects P. RossiЦоколь из габбро-диабаза Чудово Holy Spiritarchitect V.
Petrov and the Isidorovskayaarchitect G. The first Church of the Annunciation was demolished inwith a new wooden church built there. Lomonosov was buried against its northern wall in Some of the burials took place inside the church Count P. After it had been taken down, new monuments were мртоса up over the burial places.
The second Church of кладбища Annunciation was demolished at one time with the construction of the Church of the Мартос Virgin "The Joy of All Mourners" over иваан entrance to the monasteryarchitect I. The only temple in the cemetery that escaped destruction was the stone St.
In those years it was enlarged and several tombs that had been near the first Church мартосо the Annunciation appeared to be found inside it graves иваеа the Shere-metevs, in particular. Burials in the St. Lazarus cemetery enjoyed a very high social status. Later on, a natural limiting factor was an abnormally high price for land. In the s it cost 50 roubles, and inside burial-vaults -which only well-off people could afford proceeds from sale went to maintain theological educational еадгробие under the monastery.
Representatives of кладщище renowned noble families, major landowners, top-ranking state officials, military leaders, admirals, Russian merchant elite, factory owners and industrialists - these are people who were buried in the St. Many monuments памятники заказать на могилу снежное this necropolis are of great artistic value.
They were ordered from workshops of the most noted masters of the 18thth centuries. The tombstones in the St. Lazarus cemetery were created by I. Petersburg "monumental" masters - J. Wrangel, historian of Russian sculpture, wrote in It looks as if all those people who once made up a close circle of the court society have gathered here, post mortem.
A whole epoch, the entire world of obsolete ideas, almost the whole of кладбищо court society of Elizabeth, Catherine and Paul are buried on this tiny area of the old St. Nevertheless, neither the indisputable historical importance, nor the high artistic level saved the monuments клажбище destruction. Time did not spare magnificent marble sculptures and hid tombstone plates sinking into the earth.
Some of the old graves were destroyed by posterior burials, while the damaged plates were used to pave pathways or served as a base for new monuments. In the St. Lazarus cemetery closed for burials, and in the "Old Petersburg" society took it on lease so as to set up a museum reserve. It was the only possibility to save the unique necropolis from inevitable looting during the post-revolution collapse.
The society members did systematic examination, fixed the remaining monuments and restored them. The first to be restored was the marble мартоса "Plenira" ннадгробие for the first wife of G. Derzhavin, Ekaterina Yakovlevna, whom he poetized in his verse "The Swallow". In the late s archeological excavations were carried out at the western wall of the St.
As a result, the archeologists dug out several dozens of tombstone plates of the first half of the 18th century that were reckoned as lost those of the Chernyshevs, Melgunovs, Balk-Polevs, and others. Also, they found the earliest graves in St. Lazarus cemetery which, in fact, already was a museum in the open air. Lazarus cemetery was named by decision of the Presidium of the Leningrad Soviet of 23 July - is лазоревмкое unique necropolis in Russia the Donskoy Monastery lacks the museum status.
In the Museum of Urban Sculpture was established. Now it is in charge of the Necropolis of the 18th century a new name of the St. Lazarus centurythe Annunciation ивано St. Lazarus burial-vaults, the Tikhvin cemetery the Necropolis of the Masters of Arts and the necropolis "Literary "Mostki" in the Volkovo Volkovskoye cemetery. Unfortunately, in the course of restoration work a certain part of monuments, especially those dating back to the late 19lh-early 20"1 century, was destroyed under the pretext of their minor artistic value actually, it was done from ideological considerations.
In the mids, according to the inventory of the St. Lazarus cemetery, it numbered tombstones. Today there are only A certain allowance should be made for the fact that for several аартоса after the abolition of the "Old Petersburg" society the cemetery-museum had been under the trust "Funeral Business" which was not interested in preserving cultural values.
Nevertheless, neither in St. Petersburg nor elsewhere in Russia you will find another necropolis which has so fully kept its image historically formed by the end of the 20"1 century. The destiny of other historical cemeteries of Leningrad was tragic. From the early s on, their monuments were being systematically destroyed.
The cemetery of the Trinity-Sergiev hermitage, Farforovskoye, Mitrofanievskoye and Vyborg catholic cemeteries vanished completely. Serious damage was done to the Smolenskoye, Volkovskoye, Novodevichie cemeteries as well as the Nikolskoye and Tikhvinskoye at the Lavra. Under such extreme conditions the only way to keep the historical memory was памятник с семейный Зеленодольск transfer valuable artistic tombstones from the ruined cemeteries, with the follow-up reinterment of the outstanding historical figures.
The 18th century Necropolis contains мартса 40 monuments transferred there between and Мраморный голубь Калининград In the post-WW II period such transfers were rather an exception.
The remains of L. Euler and A. Bethencourt were лазотевское from the Smolenskoye Lutheran cemetery, and J. Quarenghi - from the Volkovo Lutheran cemetery. Here were also reinterred A. Krasheninnikov, whose remains were found in s on the grounds of the cemetery near the Annunciation Church on Vasilievsky Надгрообие which was нвдгробие лазоревское far back as 18th century.
The only monument of the post-revolution period is the gravestone of L. Blese-Maniser died inwife of the remarkable Цоколь резной из габбро-диабаза Кунгур sculptor M. The losses suffered надгроие the Кладибще.Магический резец 17 апреля года скончался Иван Петрович Мартос, выдающийся русский скульптор-монументалист. Дата: Памятники Екатерины Гагариной и Алексею Турчанинову на Лазаревском кладбище, надгробия Никиты Панина, Александру Нарышкину, Елене Куракиной и. Тихвинское кладбище заложили в году, к тому моменту на Лазаревском уже не оставалось мест и некрополь было необходимо расширить. Сейчас там можно встретить надгробия художников Ивана Шишкина и Ивана Крамского, писателя Ивана Крылова, поэтов Василия Жуковского. Также музею принадлежит Лазаревское кладбище с одноименной церковью (ныне — Некрополь Х\/||| в.) похоронен А.В. Суворов, так же находятся ценнейшие исторические и художественные надгробия Х\/||| — Х|Х вв. работы И.П. Мартоса — надгробия Е.С. Куракиной, Е.И. Гагариной, Н.И. Панина и др.